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River catchments and related water quality

  • Kiev city rivers (catchments and connected storm water drains):

The first case shows the catchments of four KIEV city rivers delineated with the ArcView SWAT program. These are the rivers (from left to the right): Nivka, Siretz, Libid, Darnitza. The source area of the r. Darnitza is divided into 2 subbasins. The big river in the middle of Kiev, flowing from the North to South, is the Dnepr with the reservoir in the North.

Fig. 1 Kiev City River basin delineation

The second picture shows the storm water run-off canalisation system connected to the river Siretz (scan from the "Ecological Atlas of Kiev"). During rainy weather and snow melt the Siretz becomes heavily polluted.

Fig. 2: Rain water canalisation (thick black lines) connected to the r. Siretz in Kiev (flowing from South-West to North-East)

In times of dry weather, water looks quite clean and clear and its electrical conductivity  decreases. Therefore, the smaller city streams  show the following peculiarity: Source waters can be more polluted by agriculture, garden, cattle, etc. than the water downstream. Sedimentation in reservoirs, self-purification and, maybe, dilution with cleaner drainage water improve the water quality

el. conductivity in city rivers

Fig. 3: Regular changes of electr. conductivity (medians 1997- 2000, n=96) between source (0 km) and mouth of river Nivka  and Siretz

  • Groundwater lakes in Kiev

Another type of water that is strongly influenced by soil characteristics are artificial sand and gravel pits in and around Kiev; they must be considered as "groundwater windows". The aim of the study was to identify the origin of pollution, to make recommendations for improvements and to assess the possible reduction of nutrients inflow.

Fig. 4: Sand pit in Kiev and its catchment. A small area near the northern lakeshore (garages and workshops) has a negative influence on the water quality. West and south of the lake, forest is dominating.

(4) Conclusion

The page underlines the importance of land use and soil types in the river basin on the surface water quality beside point sources  (as polluted storm water). This can have an effect on the inorganic and organic water chemistry in general and on eutrophication that must be considered as one of the main problems of water quality (in northern Ukraine) today.  

Literature:

1.  Arbeitsgruppe Baggerseen der Dt. Ges. f. Limnologie  (1996): Untersuchung, Ueberwachung und Bewertung von Baggerseen - Empfehlungen und Entscheidungshilfen  der DGL. - Mitt., ISBN 3-9802188-7-2, 125 p.

2.  HOFFMANN, M. (1986): Untersuchungen  zur oekochemischen Bewertung organischer Stoffe im Grundwasser. - Vom  Wasser, Bd. 65, 6 p.

3.. HOFFMANN, M., and GALAGAN, A. (1999): Hydrochemical Investigations on the Occurrence of  Toxicological  Relevant Matter in Rivers and Drinking Water (in Russian). - Chemistry and Technology of Water, 2, p.154 - 166);
Original title:
Хоффманн, М. и  Галаган, А. (1999): Гидрохимические исследования пространственного распределения загрязнения рек, подземных вод и питьевой воды - Химия и технология воды, 2, ст. 154 - 166

author, copyright and contact MH.
last update Apr 2012

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